Colloque sur la recherche-création
La thématique est celle du/des Code(s) :
Comment se vivent les changement de référentiel, d’un langage à un autre ?
Comment jeunes artistes et designers s’emparent ce langages et codages informatiques pour leur création, pour construire quelque chose à partir de la page blanche numérique, pour produire de nouvelles images et formes ou pour interpréter des données issues d’observations ? Le programme en cours de processus pourra être le point d’attention ou, au contraire, considéré comme tiers inclus.
J’aimerais interroger la notion de « Code » induite dans les pratiques de recherches académiques. Comment est-ce que le chercheur transcrit le réel qu’il observe? Quels sont ses outils d’inscription du réel et à travers quels codes (re-) lisent-ils le réel? Enfin, quels nouveaux outils le design peut-il aider à concevoir? Avec quelles conséquences épistémologiques?
À travers la mise en scène et en espace de méthodes et d’outils empruntés à l’ethnologie, à l’ergonomie et à l’IHM, la question de l’interprétation du réel, (re-)construit selon des "codes", est posée, avec un regard portant tant sur les inscriptions en tant que signes que sur les inscriptions en tant qu’outils.
De plus, quelques prototypes de nouveaux outils que je développe dans le cadre de ma recherche seront montrés, proposant au spectateur d’expérimenter un protocole de recherche et d’en comprendre leurs codes propres avec leurs potentiels et leurs limites.
DoDoc, a composite interface
Our exploratory design study addresses the design of tools that enhance reflective thinking during learning by doing activities. As design researchers using a methodology through design practice, we prototype tools that aim to support learners’ reflective practices by capturing and displaying digital traces of their activities, and we analyze the transformations of theses activities that their implementations provoked.
The design rationales of our prototypes were initially informed by the abundant research on situated cognition and metacognition processes—and more particularly by Schön’s approach , which unpacks the reflective thinking that can occur during the design process. Then, we learned from the implementations we made of two different prototypes in two situations: 1) we placed The Research Diary (a photographic system with a profile-based interface) in a classroom with 70 pupils [7-11 years old] for three months during design workshops, and 2) we implemented L’OpenDoc (a web-based interface) in a fablab frequented mainly by young adults for 6 months.
Even though these two contexts differ by many aspects (goals, public, organization, rules), our results suggest that the needs for tools that enable digital records of activities are very similar, and so could be the design of such tools. In this communication, we describe these results, and present a new flexible prototype: DoDoc, a ‘composite’ interface, that we will test and evaluate this coming year. Then, we discuss the design principles of DoDoc, and sketch the future works.
How to design tools for knowledge and learning? The aim is both to question the role and the impact of tools for knowledge in educational environments, and to discuss the design of such tools depending on the context they are implemented in (such as design schools, primary schools, general education, online education,…) with a focus on design learning.
To conduct this workshop, we consider a two-fold methodology.
First, we intend to present several tools that we have been designing and testing in various educational environments. As design researchers, we used a methodology through design practice to create a series of tools, both tangible and digital, that deal with knowledge collection and transmission [Gourlet & al., in press]. Following on previous researches, such as the works of Lave & Wenger [Lave & Wenger, 1991], Bereiter & Scardamalia [Bereiter & Scardamalia, 1989] and Ann L. Brown [Brown, 1992; 1993], and projects of interaction designers such as Cati Vaucelle [Vaucelle, 2010], we address the question of the role of such tools to transform learning environments into communities of practice. Thanks to the variety of medium and interfaces that we have prototyped, this first part of the session will quickly offer a first broad overview of knowledge tools, an understanding of their impact and a vision of the literacies and skills that can emerge through their use. This presentation is made through practice with manipulations and appropriations of the prototypes by the participants. We have mapped our attempts and used this map to propose a classification of knowledge tools (tools to explore and navigate, tools to document, tools to collaborate and tools to stimulate) that we will propose for discussion with the attendees.
The second phase is about questioning the design of such tools depending on the learning context in which they are used. Participants will imagine use cases scenarios using low-fidelity prototyping methods. Inspired by Gaver and Dunne’s probes [Gaver et al., 1999], we designed a toolkit – which will also be tested as one of our knowledge tools – to engage participants to co-design new knowledge tools.
Through this two phases workshop, participants will apprehend how knowledge tools can transform education practices – especially for design education–, and address questions about how those tools evolve through contexts and time, how open they are and what constraints they imply for users, which are issues one should consider when designing tools.
Comments for the authors
The title and noted content of the workshop are intriguing to an audience of
educators in any field and at any level. However, not all those attending the
conference will know what « knowledge tools » are as it is not a common term in
the literature surrounding education, so I suggest moving the definition of
the term « knowledge tools » from the last sentence of the third paragraph
(« …knowledge tools (tools to explore and navigate, tools to document, tools
to collaborate and tools to stimulate.) ») and placing it somewhere in the
The opening paragraph stimulates thought and interest with its initial
question, but its second and only other sentence seems confusing. With the
addition of the definition of « knowledge tools » as note above, you might find
more success in keeping the reader’s interest and focus.
The paragraph beginning « First, we intend to … » is lengthy and contains a
number of unnecessary words. Remove « on previous », change « researches » to
« researchers », remove « the works of », remove « the question of », remove the
word « first » from the sentence « the session will quickly offer a first broad
In the paragraph following that, the final line reads better as « …to engage
participants in co-designing new knowledge tools. »
Finally, you might consider a brief sentence as to the target audience for the
workshop. Is this for all attendees? Is it more for designers and educators
who also design such tools? A clear statement of target audience up front
would help make sure you are working with those you intend as your audience.
NOTES from previous papers
Our contribution lies in the description on ways to improve these active learning experiences by encouraging pupils to document their activities, and in the proposal of design guidelines for instruments that can support this kind of “in-class” documentation.
I study how this situated knowledge is produced and shared. This implies a triple focus: 1) on the objects people produce through their practice, 2) on the tools used to mediate that production; and 3) on the circulation of these objects between environments and people.
How to design tools that support active learning experiences, such as design education? The aim of this workshop is to elaborate design guidelines for instruments that mediate the production and the sharing of situated knowledge. We refer to these instruments as « knowledge tools ». As design researchers, we used a design research methodology to create a series of tools, both tangible and digital, that deal with knowledge collection and transmission [Gourlet & al, 2014]. Building upon research on situated knowledge and design experiments in classrooms [Lave & Wenger, 1991; Brown, 1992; 1993], we address the ways in which such tools can help establishing communities of practice in learning environments, such as schools.
To conduct this workshop, we will first present our research on knowledge tools with a cartography, which maps existing tools and situates our own prototypes: tools to explore and navigate, tools to document, tools to collaborate and tools to stimulate. We will discuss this map with the attendees in a design perspective.
Then, the most important part of the workshop will be dedicated to designing such tools depending on the learning context in which they are intended to be used. This second phase proposes “hands on” activities with manipulations of the prototypes by the participants, who will imagine use-cases scenarios using low-fidelity prototyping methods. Inspired by Gaver and Dunne’s probes [Gaver et al., 1999], we designed toolkits – which will also be tested as one of our knowledge tools – to engage participants in co-designing new knowledge tools.
During this workshop, participants will apprehend how knowledge tools can transform active education practices—especially for design education–, and address questions about how these tools can/should evolve in different contexts and timeframes, and what level of constraint they should impose. This will lead to an early sketch of design guidelines for such tools. This workshop is open to both designers and educators who will team up to elaborate use-cases and scenarios.
Guidelines pour le design à partir des observations faites à l'école primaire.